# PHPのお勉強！

PHP TOP

## 代数演算子

+\$a 同一 \$a を、必要に応じて int あるいは float に変換する
-\$a 負にする \$a の逆
\$a + \$b 加算 \$a および \$b の合計
\$a - \$b 減算 \$a\$b の差
\$a * \$b 乗算 \$a および \$b の積
\$a / \$b 除算 \$a および \$b の商
\$a % \$b 剰余 \$a\$b で割った余り
\$a ** \$b 累乗 \$a\$b 乗。PHP 5.6 で導入されました。

<?php

echo (3)."\n";           // 2
echo (% -3)."\n";          // 2
echo (-3)."\n";          // -2
echo (-% -3)."\n";         // -2

?>

マニュアルの 数学関数の項も参照してください。

### User Contributed Notes 15 notes

47
pr dot dot dot dot k at g dot dot dot com
3 years ago
The modulus operator is very poorly suited for such a simple operation as determining if an int is even or odd. On most common systems, modulus performs a division, which is a very slow operation.
A much better way to find if a number is even or odd is to use the bitwise & operator.

e.g.

\$is_odd = \$x & 1; //using and
\$is_odd = \$x % 2; //using modulus
biziclop at vipmail dot hu
1 year ago
For positive modulos, here is a mathematically proper modulo which actually works with negative integers.

<?php
// Inline: \$v is value to be divided, \$m is the modulus
\$remainder = ( \$v % \$m + \$m ) % \$m;

// Or as a function:
function modulo( \$value, \$modulus ){
return (
\$value % \$modulus + \$modulus ) % \$modulus;
}

// Test:
for( \$x = -6; \$x <= 6; ++\$x )  echo \$x, "\t", modulo( \$x, 3 ), "\t<br>\n";
/* prints:
-6  0
-5  1
-4  2
-3  0
-2  1
-1  2
0  0
1  1
2  2
3  0
*/
?>
45
Jonathon Reinhart
13 years ago
A very simple yet maybe not obvious use of the modulus (%) operator is to check if an integer is odd or even.
<?php

if ((\$a % 2) == 1)
{ echo
"\$a is odd." ;}
if ((
\$a % 2) == 0)
{ echo
"\$a is even." ;}
?>

This is nice when you want to make alternating-color rows on a table, or divs.

<?php

for (\$i = 1; \$i <= 10; \$i++) {
if((
\$i % 2) == 1//odd

{echo "<div class=\"dark\">\$i</div>";}
else
//even

{echo "<div class=\"light\">\$i</div>";}
}
?>
19
info at sima-pc dot com
16 years ago
Note that operator % (modulus) works just with integers (between -214748348 and 2147483647) while fmod() works with short and large numbers.

Modulus with non integer numbers will give unpredictable results.
vike2000 at gmail dot com
11 months ago
With % (modulo), it looks like php uses the C operator (apart from some sanity-checks), according to following `awk` command, getting the relevant lines of arbitrary commits (dbb462db5d and 04d5086578 for me) in github.com/php/php-src:

\$ awk '!F[0]&&/expr '\''%'\'' expr/{p()} !F[0]&&/case ZEND_MOD/{p();F[0]=1;F[1]="return"} !F[0]&&/mod_function\(.*\)/{p();F[0]=2;F[1]="ZVAL_LONG"} '\$(: function p for printing and array F for finding in files follows: )' F[0]&&match(\$0,F[1])&&1==F[0]--{p();delete F;nextfile}function p(){print FILENAME":"FNR":\t"\$0}' Zend/zend_{language_parser.y,{opcode,operators}.c}
Zend/zend_language_parser.y:939:        |    expr '%' expr     { \$\$ = zend_ast_create_binary_op(ZEND_MOD, \$1, \$3); }
Zend/zend_opcode.c:1042:            case ZEND_MOD:
Zend/zend_opcode.c:1043:                return (binary_op_type) mod_function;
Zend/zend_operators.c:1333:    ZEND_API int ZEND_FASTCALL mod_function(zval *result, zval *op1, zval *op2) /* {{{ */
Zend/zend_operators.c:1362:        ZVAL_LONG(result, op1_lval % op2_lval);
-10
philippe
2 years ago
To get a positiv result

function modulo(int \$a, int \$b):?int {
if (\$b == 0) {
throw new Exception('modulo : second operand must not be zero');
}
\$b = abs(\$b);
// test \$b == 1 for performance when \$a < 0
return (\$b == 1) ? 0 : ((\$a < 0) ? modulo(\$a + \$b, \$b) : \$a % \$b);
}
-15
arjini at gmail dot com
16 years ago
When dealing purely with HTML, especially tables, or other things in "grids"  the modulous operator is really useful for splitting up the data with a seperator.

This snippet reads any gif files from the directory the script is in, prints them out and puts in a break every 5th image.

<?php
\$d
= dir('./');

\$i = 0;
while(
if(
strpos(\$e,'.gif')){
++
\$i;
echo
'<img src="'.\$e.'"/>'.chr(10);
if(!(
\$i%5))
echo
'<br/>';
}
}
?>

For tables just put </tr><tr> in place of the break.
-20
Dominik Buechler
5 years ago
In addition to Jonathan's comment, there is a way simpler way to determine if an integer is even or not:

<? \$odd = \$i % 2; ?>
or
<? \$even = !(\$i % 2); ?>

This works because a modulo division by 2 will always return either 0 or the rest 1. Since those are valid boolean values you can just invert them by adding a prefixed ! if wanted.
-20
TheWanderer
12 years ago
It is worth noticing that when working with large numbers, most noticably using the modulo operator, the results depend on your CPU architecture. Therefore, running a decent 64-bit machine will be to your advantage in case you have to perform complex mathematical operations. Here is some example code - you can compare its output on x86 and x86_64 machines:
<?php
/* tested under PHP 5.2.6-1 with Suhosin-Patch 0.9.6.2 (cli) on both i386 and amd64, Debian lenny/sid */
\$a = 2863311530;
\$b = 256;
\$c = \$a % \$b;
echo
"\$c <br />\n";
echo (
2863311530 % 256)." <br />\n"; /* directly with no variables, just to be sure */
?>

The code is expected to produce '170' if working correctly (try it in spreadsheet software).
-27
Andrew
7 years ago
The % operator doesn't behave as many people with a maths background would expect, when dealing with negative numbers. For example, -1 mod 8 = 7, but in PHP, -1 % 8 = -1.

The following function has the expected behaviour:

function mod(\$a, \$n) {
return (\$a % \$n) + (\$a < 0 ? \$n : 0);
}

mod(-1, 8) returns 7 as expected.
-26
lmc at trendicy dot com
6 years ago
If you are running a php version older than 5.6, you can calculate \$a ** \$b by using exp(\$b*log(\$a))
-23
peter at icb dot at
3 years ago
If you need the mathematical modulo (always positive) from negative numbers, use this small function:

<?php
function modulo(\$a , \$b) { return (\$a + \$b) % \$b; }

// examples:
echo modulo(15, 12);  // 3
echo modulo(-9, 12);  // 3
?>
-34
glenn at benge dot co dot nz
15 years ago
a real simple method to reset an integer to a the next lowest multiple of a divisor

\$startSeq = \$startSeq - (\$startSeq % \$entriesPerPage);

if \$startSeq was already a multiple, then " \$startSeq % \$entriesPerPage " will return 0 and \$startSeq will not change.
-46
calmarius at atw dot hu
12 years ago
Be careful when using % with large numbers.

The code:

<?php

echo 3333333333 % 3
?>

puts out -1 instead of zero!

(Due to the overflow)
-66
php at richardneill dot org
9 years ago
For larger numbers (above PHP_INT_MAX), use fmod() rather than %.
The other operators (+-*/) work correctly with floats and integer overflow, but % uses integer wrap. Eg.

<?php
var_dump
(0xffffffff % 2);
//Prints  int(-1)   which is WRONG

var_dump(intval(fmod(0xffffffff,2)));
//Prints int(1)   which is the right answer
?>

(The reason this matters is that PHP's float is actually a double, and can accurately represent integers up to 52-bits, even on 32-bit systems)